•(1) liberation of an ovum, or egg, at a specific time in the
•(2) internal fertilization of the ovum by spermatozoa, or
•(3) transport of the fertilized ovum to the uterus, or
•(4) implantation of the blastocyst, the early embryo
developed from the fertilized ovum, in the wall of the
•(5) formation of a placenta and maintenance of the unborn
child during the entire period of gestation
•(6) birth of the child and expulsion of the placenta, and
•(7) suckling and care of the child, with an eventual return
of the maternal organs to virtually their original state.
•It is the male organ for
copulation, the release of
semen, and urination
•It is richly supplied with
•It is associated with
feelings of pleasure during
•A pouch of skin that
encloses the two testes
•It maintains the testes at a
temperature suitable for
•paired, oval-shaped organs that
produce sperm and the male
hormones, the androgens
•a pair of elongated crescent-shaped
structures attached to each of the
two testes where the sperm matures
•Ductus (Vas) Deferens:
•thick-walled tube in the male
reproductive system that transports
sperm cells from the epididymis
•Coiled tubules where sperms are
produced by the process called,
•chestnut-shaped reproductive organ
located directly beneath the bladder in
the male, which adds secretions to the
sperm during the ejaculation of semen
•the prostate contributes 15–30
percent of the seminal plasma (or
semen) secreted by the male
•saclike glands that secrete fluid that
contribute approximately 60 percent of
•Bulbourethral (Cowpers) gland:
•Are pea-shaped glands that secrete
clear and thick fluid that acts as a
•it is also thought to function as a
flushing agent that washes out the
urethra before the semen is
•it may also help to make the semen
less watery and to provide a suitable
living environment for the sperm
Urethra: tube that passes
urine and semen out of
the body. Also the entry
point in males for STDs.
Note: semen and urine
do not pass through
the urethra at the
Glans penis: sensitive
tissue on the head of the
penis with purpose for
• Is the production of new sperm cells
•It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
•Sperm are produced at a rate of 1,000 every second
•The male reproductive cell, produced by most animals
•It consists of genetic substances, called chromosomes, which are
responsible for transmitting specific characteristics of an individual, such
as the colour of eyes, hair, and skin
•Sperm are flagellated; that is, they have a whiplike tail—called flagellum
•The sperm unites with (fertilizes) an ovum (egg) of the female to produce
a new offspring
•Acrosome at the tip of the head releases enzyme to enter the oocyte
•Sperm may remain motile for up to 7 days within the female reproductive
tract, but are thought to loose their ability to fertilize an egg after 2 to 3
•Sperms are attached to oocytes by chemicals that act as “homing device”
allowing them to locate the oocyte.
•It takes 1 to 2 hours for sperm to complete the journey up to the female
duct system to the end of the uterine tubes.
Ovary: produce female eggs/ovum as well
as estrogen & progesterone
Fallopian tubes (Oviducts): tubes that
transport ovum to the uterus; passageway
where fertilization occurs; site of ectopic
pregnancy; site where tubal ligation
Uterus: also known as the “womb” The
function of the uterus is to receive and
implant the zygote; when no fertilized egg
is present the lining of the uterus sheds
for the menstrual cycle.
Cervix: lower end of the uterus; an opening
between the uterus and vagina that passes
sperm, menstrual fluid, and a fetus.
Vagina: the birth canal, pathway for
menstrual flow, and sperm. Opening for
sexual intercourse and contains vaginal
Clitoris: sensitive tissue
with sole purpose for
Urethra: opening for
It is the periodic discharge from the vagina of
blood, secretions, and disintegrating mucous membrane
that had lined the uterus.
• If fertilization does not occur, progesterone levels fall,
depriving the endometrium of hormonal support
• Spiral arteries kink and go into spasms and endometrial cells
begin to die
• The functional layer begins to digest itself
• The rush of blood fragments weakened capillary beds and the
functional layer sloughs off.
HIV and AIDS
What’s the difference?
because this virus infect human beings
because the effect of the virus is to create a deficiency, a failure to
work properly, within the body's immune system.
because this organism is a virus.
“A virus is incapable of reproducing by itself. It
reproduces by taking over the machinery of the human
because it's a condition one must acquire or get infected with.
because it affects the body's immune system, the part of the body
which usually works to fight off germs such as bacteria and viruses
because it makes the immune system deficient (makes it not work
because someone with AIDS may experience a wide range of
different diseases and opportunistic infections.
When a person is HIV positive, it means
the HIV virus is in his or her body.
When a person has AIDS it means HIV
has made it so the body cannot fight
HIV enters the body through blood,
semen, vaginal fluid or breast milk
from an infected person
The Immune System is
the body’s defense
Let’s think of the immune system as an army fighting
infections, white blood cells (wbc) are the sodiers—they are
There are special lymphocytes called CD4 helper
lymphocytes—they coordinate the immune system’s attack
on foreign organisms.
As HIV infects the body, it destroys CD4
Helper Lymphocytes by using them to
make copies of itself.
“This causes the immune system not
to work well.”
Lymphocytes and HIV fight each other for
years. Each day the body makes billions of
CD4 cells and the HIV uses them to make
even more of its own.
In most people, the HIV eventually wins the battle.
After a person isinfected with HIV, the number of CD4 cells
A normal count is 600 to 1500 per cubic
millimeter of blood.
When the count drops below 200, the body’s immune
system cannot work well at alland a simple infection could
cause alot of trouble because the body cannot fight it off.
Anyone can get HIV
A person with HIV can give it to another person
through blood, semen, vaginal fluid or breast milk.
HIV is not transmitted through saliva, sweat,
spit, tears, air or insects.
There are different amounts of HIV in various bodily
fluids. The highest amount of HIV are in blood,
followed by semen, followed by vaginal fluids, followed
by breast milk.
The most common way to get HIV is through
unprotected sex – sex without a condom.
If a person has HIV, the virus is in their blood and
semen or vaginal secretions.
It could enter another person’s body through tiny
cuts or sores on the skin or the lining of the
vagina, penis, rectum or mouth.
Another common way of getting HIV is by
sharing a needle or syringe with someone who
Most people do not notice if they get HIV.
Some people who get the virus may develop a
brief flu-like illness 2 to 6 weeks after
However, since these symptoms are similar to
a cold or flu, theygo unnoticed…
People with HIV may develop AIDS in
much less than 10 years or they may
never develop AIDS.
If you engage in high risk behavior, such as unprotected sex or sharing
needles for intravenous drug use, get tested for HIV every 3 to 6 months.
Your test can be confidential and anonymous.
That’s All for the Semester…
“ It’s been a wonderful
experience being your prof,
I just hope that you learned
something from me…
Good Luck and God Bless!!!”