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Hooked



@nireyal

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Products  can  profoundly  


CHANGE  OUR  BEHAVIORS.
100’s  of  millions  of  
users…

…and  100’s  of    
millions  of  dollars.
?
NS

T
AT

P

R
E
I  wrote  this  …

…  more  at:  
NirAndFar.com
Vitamins OR
Pain Killers?
PAIN  KILLERS  address  a  
burning  need.
VITAMINS  are    
“nice  to  have.”
Vitamins OR
Pain Killers?
With  habit-­‐forming  technology

PLEASURE  SEEKING
behavior

becomes

PAIN  ALLEVIATING
behavior
What  do  we  mean  by  PAIN?  
Close  your  eyes.
HOW DID YOU FEEL?
When  we  FEEL  AN  ITCH
we  seek  to  SCRATCH  IT.
The  SOLUTION  TO  


OUR  DISCOMFORT  

is  found  in  the  product’s  use.
We  are  not  designing  for  addiction  
Do  not  design  for  addiction.
NOT  must  be  in  graphic  
hab·it

A  BEHAVIOR  DONE  WITH

LITTLE  OR  NO  

CONSCIOUS  
THOUGHT
HEALTHTAP

LUMO

POCKET
REFRESH.IO

EMODT

Habits can be used for good.
REV

7 CUPS

BIA

PANTRY LABS
1.  FREQUENCY

    Source:  Judah,  G;  Gardner,  B;  Aunger,  R;  2013
2.  ATTITUDE  CHANGE
    Source:  Judah,  G;  Gardner,  B;  Aunger,  R;  2013
Harnessing  

HABITS  
can  be  

VERY  GOOD
FOR  BUSINESS.
Creating  consumer  habits  drives  


HIGHER  CUSTOMER
LIFETIME  VALUE  (CLTV).
Creating  consumer  habits  gives  companies  

GREATER  FLEXIBILITY
TO  INCREASE  PRICES.
Creating  consumer  habits  


SUPERCHARGES
GROWTH.
Creating  consumer  habits

INCREASES  DEFENSIBILITY.
HARD  WORK

However,  forming  new  habits  is  
AND  EXCEPTIONALLY  RARE.
But  if  your  business  requires    
“unprompted  user  engagement,”
A  design  pattern  to  help

FORM  BETTER  PRODUCT  
HYPOTHESES.
BUILDING  IS
EXPENSIVE      
INCREASE  YOUR  ODDS  OF  SUCCESS.
h

k

The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$
connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
h

with%enough%%

FREQUENCY%%

to%%

FORM+A+HABIT.+

k
k

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A"Hook"has"4"parts:"
A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:  
T   -­‐  Trigger  
A  -­‐  Action  
R   -­‐  Reward  
I -­‐  Investment
h

k
HABITS  ARE  

BUILT  UPON  

like  the  layers  of  a  
pearl.
Triggers  come  in  two  flavors:


EXTERNAL  &  

INTERNAL
EXTERNAL  TRIGGERS

The  information  for  what  to  do  next    
is  within  the  trigger.

Billboards

SO
DA
Optimizing  external  triggers  =    
Growth  Hacking
INTERNAL  TRIGGERS

The  information  for  what  to  do  next  is  informed  

through  an  association  in  the  user’s  ...
Negative  emotions  are  POWERFUL  INTERNAL  TRIGGERS.

lonesome
indecisive powerless
tense
dissatisfied
confused inferior...
People  who  are  DEPRESSED  CHECK  EMAIL  MORE  OFTEN.
    Source:  Kotikalapudi  et  al  2012
When  we  feel  LONELY  we  use
When  we  feel  UNSURE  we    use                                                
When  we  are  BORED  we  use                                      
Do you know your customer’s
INTERNAL TRIGGER?
What  triggers  make                                                  so  habit-­‐forming?
 external  triggers
solves  the  pain
of  losing  the  moment.
But                                                is  
also  a  social  network.

Lonely

Stressed
Curious

Urge to
prese...
h

k
The

SIMPLEST  ACTION
in  anticipation  of  a  reward.
Scroll
Search
Play
According  to  BJ  Fogg,  for  any  behavior  to  occur,  we  
need  MOTIVATION,  ABILITY,  and  a  TRIGGER

b=m+a+t
mo·ti·va·tion

“THE  ENERGY  FOR  ACTION”

-­‐Edward  Deci
THERE  ARE  SIX  FACTORS  
THAT  CAN  INCREASE  
MOTIVATION.

Seeking Pleasure

Avoiding Pain

Seeking Hope

Avoiding Fear...
Seeking  HOPE
Seeking  PLEASURE
Avoiding  FEAR


Seeking  ACCEPTANCE
ABILITY
the capacity to do
a particular action
Time%

$
Money%

Physical%effort%
%

Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability.
Brain%cycles%

Social%deviance%

Non8rou...
Level  of  of  motivation  and  ability  
determines  if  action  will  occur.

MOTIVATION

TRIGGER  	

SUCCEEDS

TRIGGER ...
Simplicity is a
function of your
scarcest resource at
that moment.
-­‐BJ  Fogg
through  the  years

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
through  the  years

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
through  the  years

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
h

k
   Source:  Olds  and  Milner,  1945

It  all  starts  with  the

NUCLEUS  
ACCUMBENS
studied  by  Olds  &  Milner.
The  nucleus  accumbens  

is  activated  when  

we  crave.
Were
Olds & Milner
stimulating
pleasure?
Not exactly.
They  were  stimulating  the  

STRESS  OF  DESIRE.
Our  reward  system  activates  

with  anticipation

Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001    
…  and  calms  when  

we  get  what  we  want.

Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001
That’s  the  ITCH
we  seek  to  SCRATCH.
There  is  a  way  to  supercharge  the  stress  of  desire.
THE  UNKNOWN
IS  FASCINATING.
Variability  causes  us  to    
focus  and  engagement
…and  increases  behavior.
The  nucleus  accumbens  is  
stimulated  by  variability.
3  types  of  VARIABLE  REWARDS

TRIBE

HUNT

SELF

Habit-­‐forming  tech  uses  1  OR  MORE
SEARCH  FOR
SOCIAL  REWARDS
TRIBE
empathetic joy

partnership

competition
We  Like  social  rewards.
We  LOVE  our  tribes.
We  value  recognition  and  cooperation
SEARCH  FOR
RESOURCES
HUNT
Stems  from  the  hunt  for  food  and  resources
Hunt  for  variable  material  rewards
Hunt  for  variable  material  rewards
Hunt  

for  variable  
information  

rewards.
Hunters  on
scroll  pages.
SEARCH  FOR
SELF-­‐ACHIEVEMENT
SELF
Leveling-­‐up  reflects  MASTERY  and  COMPETENCY.
Inbox  or  task  management  reflects  


CONSISTENCY  and  COMPLETION.
WARNING

Variable  rewards  are  not  a  free  pass.  

Your  product  still  must  address  the  itch.
Build  variable  rewards  that  scratch  the  users  itch,  
but  leave  them  wanting  more.
h

k
Users  “invest”  for  future  benefits.
Money

Social
Capital

Personal
Data

Time

Emotional
Commitment

Effort
Investments increase the
likelihood of the next pass
through the Hook in 


TWO

ways.
1.

INVESTMENTS  
LOAD  THE  
NEXT  TRIGGER          
      OF  THE  HOOK.
Each  new  message  posted  on
is  an  open  
invitation  for  an  
external  trigger  to  
be  returned.
Loading  the  next  trigger  with  Pin  It  button  
The                                  Hook

External  Trigger:    
Facebook,  Twitter,  WOM

Interesting  objects  (Hunt)

...
The                                  Hook

External  Trigger:    
Emails  and  notifications  
Internal  Trigger:  
Fear  ...
2.

INVESTMENTS  STORE  VALUE,  

improving  the  product  with  use.
CONTENT
DATA
FOLLOWERS
REPUTATION

30
!
INVESTMENTS!
CREATES !
PREFERENCE.
We  value  things  more  when
put  work  in  them.

3rd Party Bids

$0.05

Expert Origami

$0.27

    Source:  Ariely,  Mo...
As  we  invest,  we  seek  to  be    
consistent  with  our  past  behaviors.

Group 1
Group 2

    Source:  Freedman  &  ...
Changing  attitude  
and  perception  to  
avoid  COGNITIVE  
DISSONANCE.

    Source:  Jon  Esler,  1983
We  change  our  
preferences,  
tastes  and  
attitudes.
h

k

The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$
connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
Each  pass  through  the  Hook  helps  

SHAPE  USER  PREFERENCES  AND  ATTITUDES.
h

With%enough%frequency,%

A"HABIT"IS"FORMED."

k
A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:  
T   -­‐  Trigger  
A  -­‐  Action  
R   -­‐  Reward  
I -­‐  Investment
The  HOOK  Canvas

1.  What  internal  trigger  is              
the  product  addressing?  
2.  What  external  trigger  ...
THE  MORALITY
OF  MANIPULATION
Designing  

habit-­‐forming    
products  is  a  form  
of  manipulation.
Users  take  our  technologies  to  bed.
They  check  our  devices  before  saying  “good  
morning”  to  loved  ones.
Quite  possibly,  the    


“CIGARETTE  OF  

THIS  CENTURY.”

-­‐  Ian  Bogust
What  
RESPONSIBILITY  
do  we  have  when  
changing  user  behavior?
THE  WORLD  IS  FULL  OF  PROBLEMS  TO  FIX.

Help  others  find  meaning.  Engage  them  in  
something  important.
Build  the  

CHANGE
you  want  to  see  in
THE  WORLD.
Read  this  …

…  more  at:  
NirAndFar.com
h

1.  Take  the  survey.  

k

www.OpinionTo.Us  
!

2.  Get  the  slides.

@nireyal  
www.nirandfar.com
HABITS  ARE  
 BUILT  UPON
HABITS  ARE  
 BUILT  UPON
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HABITS  ARE  
 BUILT  UPON Hooked Model

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HABITS  ARE  

BUILT  UPON  

like  the  layers  of  a  
pearl.

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