National Science Day 2015
Method of Science
Science Bloggers' Association,India
Focal theme for National Science
• “Science for Nation Building”.
• You are future builders of India.
• Then you must have a scientific temper
and know what is method of science and
develop a habit to mould your activities
• But this habit does not always come
naturally; they have to be practiced.
What is scientific temper?
• Scientific temper is a state of mind which
does not accept anything but the truth.
• A way of life/living to think logically and
rationally. To have a rational attitude!
• Our first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
used the term in 1946.
• A logical person look at every thing with
• He should not be easily swayed by popular
• What do you think of
• A person with scientific
temper is sceptic at
• scientific temper should
be reflected from your
own every-day conduct.
• What do you think why eclipses occurre?
• Scientific temper foster values hidden in
• Now let me familiarize you with method of
• The knowledge we call science is acquired
through scientific method involving inquiry,
observations and their logical extensions.
• It is testable by experiment and/or has
logically convincing explanation.
Scientific MethodScientific Method
• Steps in the Scientific Method-Steps in the Scientific Method-
• Data CollectionData Collection
• Gathered through yourGathered through your sensessenses
• A scientist notices something inA scientist notices something in
theirtheir natural world.natural world.
• AnAn exampleexample of an observationof an observation
might be noticing that manymight be noticing that many
tadpoles in a pond have curved,tadpoles in a pond have curved,
not straight tails!not straight tails!
• What may be the reason?What may be the reason?
• This leads to hypothesis.This leads to hypothesis.
• A suggested solution to the problem.A suggested solution to the problem.
• Must beMust be testable.testable.
• Sometimes written asSometimes written as If…Then…If…Then… statementsstatements
• PredictsPredicts an outcome.an outcome.
• An example of a hypothesis mightAn example of a hypothesis might
be that the tadpoles have curvedbe that the tadpoles have curved
tails due to a pollutant in thetails due to a pollutant in the
moist soil where they live.moist soil where they live.
• Now this hypothesis has to beNow this hypothesis has to be
• A procedure toA procedure to testtest thethe
• VariableVariable – factor in the– factor in the
experiment that is beingexperiment that is being
• A good or “valid” experimentA good or “valid” experiment
will only havewill only have ONE variable!ONE variable!
• An experimenter changes one factor
and observes or measures what
• The experimenter makes a specialThe experimenter makes a special
effort to keepeffort to keep other factors constantother factors constant
so that they will not effect theso that they will not effect the
• Those factors are calledThose factors are called
control variablescontrol variables
• Controls are NOT being tested
• Controls are used for
• Two groups are required --- the
control & experimental groups.
• Now the observation leads to
data collection and result.
Data and Result
• Results of the experiment
• May be quantitative (numbers)
• Must be organized
• Can be organized into charts,
tables, or graphs.
• The answer to the hypothesis
based on the data obtained
from the experiment.
• Solving a ProblemSolving a Problem
1)Identify a Problem
2) State Observations about the problem
3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…
4) Design an Experiment to test the
5) Collect Data
6) Form a Conclusion
Science Temper and Method of Science
• ``Believe nothing, merely because you have been told it
or because it is traditional or because you yourself have
imagined it. Do not believe what your teacher tells you,
merely out of respect for the teacher. But whatever after
due examination and analysis you find conducive to the
good, the benefit, the welfare of all beings that doctrine
believe and cling to, and take if as your guide`
• -Gautam Buddha
• नहिहि प्रत्यक्षविविरोधे श्रुते प्रमाण्यम, नहिहि श्रुितशतमिपि शीतोिग्नि अप्रकाश:
इत ब्रुवित प्रामाण्यम उपिैतित -शंकराचायर
• Thank You